Published on Thursday November 12, the Landmine Monitor 2020 reports an exceptionally high number of casualties caused by landmines, particularly explosive remnants of war (ERW) and improvised mines, for the fifth year running.
The Monitor recorded 5,554 mine casualties during 2019; 80% of whom were civilians, with children representing 43% of the civilian casualties. This high figure is mainly due to intense armed conflicts in Afghanistan, Nigeria, Syria and other conflict areas. Humanity & Inclusion (HI) is calling on states – that will gather online from November 16th-20th for the annual Mine Ban Treaty conference - to enforce international humanitarian law and to put pressure on belligerent parties to end the use of these barbaric weapons. As the COVID-19 pandemic challenges humanitarian mine action in many countries, HI is also calling on states to maintain efforts to adapt mine action activities to public health restrictions in order to free the world of mines.
High casualties rates for five consecutive years
The Landmine Monitor reveals that the number of new casualties of landmines and explosive remnants of war reached 5,554 in 2019 and remains high for the fifth year in a row (6,897 in 2018, 7,253 in 2017, 9,439 in 2016 and 6,971 in 2015). The 2019 total is still 60% higher than the lowest determined annual number of 3,457 casualties in 2013. There was an average of 10 casualties per day in 2013; in 2019, the rate rocketed to 15 casualties per day. The Monitor underlines that casualties go unrecorded in many states and areas, meaning the true casualty figure is likely significantly higher.
For the fourth successive year, in 2019, the highest number of annual casualties was caused by improvised mines. Out of a total of 5,554 mine casualties recorded in 2019, 2,994 people were killed or injured by improvised mines.
Though mainly used by non-state armed groups, improvised landmines fall within the scope of the Ottawa Treaty and its prohibition of the use of any indiscriminate weapons. Dialogue with some non-state armed groups to convince them to abandon such practices and to commit to the Treaty is possible. Mine clearance – which is an obligation of the Ottawa Treaty - is a way to deny these groups access to weapons and munitions as many improvised mines are made using disposed of explosives or remnants of them.
The vast majority of people killed by anti-personnel mines are civilians: 80% of casualties were civilians in 2019 (4,466), of whom 43% were children (1,562). Explosive remnants of war caused the most child casualties (756, or 49%). In 2019, the majority of new casualties of landmines and explosive remnants of war were recorded in Afghanistan (1,538), Syria (1,125), Myanmar (358), Mali (345), Ukraine (324), Yemen (248), Nigeria (238) and Iraq (161). Mine casualties were recorded in 50 states and five territories around the world.
New reported mine use
The Landmine Monitor confirmed new uses of anti-personnel mines by government forces in Myanmar between October 2019 and October 2020. Non-State armed groups also used landmines, including improvised mines, in at least six countries: Afghanistan, Colombia, India, Libya, Myanmar, and Pakistan. The Monitor also says there were as yet unconfirmed allegations of new mine use by non-state armed groups in 12 countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Egypt, etc.) These uses have caused high-level contamination that will endanger the lives of thousands of people over the long-term. A total of 60 states and territories have been contaminated by mines and explosive remnants of war around the world.
COVID-19 impacts mine action
Measures against COVID-19 had a serious impact on mine action in 2020. Restrictions prevented survivors and other persons with disability from accessing services they needed (rehabilitation, social services, etc.) in several mine-affected countries. Clearance was temporally suspended as well as risk education sessions that were adapted to constraints and restrictions against the pandemic.
- You can access a copy of the Landmine Monitor 2020 at this link. Or, you can directly download a copy here.
- Humanity & Inclusion’s advocacy & mine action experts available for interview
- The Ottawa Treaty bans the acquisition, production, stockpiling, trade and use of anti-personnel mines. The treaty was opened for signing on December 3, 1997 and entered into force on March 1, 1999. A total of 164 states are party to the treaty and one state (the Marshall Islands) has signed but not ratified the treaty.
- The United States of America is not a party to the Mine Ban Treaty.
- In January 2020, President Trump issued a new landmine policy, allowing for the use of landmines, as well as development of future mines.
- The U.S. Campaign to Ban Landmines, of which Humanity & Inclusion is a member and current coordinator, has set out guidelines for the next U.S. President to reverse this policy, and to join the Mine Ban Treaty. The USCLB policy paper can be found here.
- The Landmine Monitor 2020 report measures the impact of the Ottawa Treaty, which bans the use, production, transfer and stockpiling of anti-personnel mines for the calendar year 2019, with information included up to October 2020 when possible.
About Humanity & Inclusion
Co-winner of the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize, Humanity & Inclusion is a charity working in situations of poverty and exclusion, conflict and disaster. We work tirelessly alongside people with disabilities and vulnerable people to help meet their basic needs, improve their living conditions and promote respect for their dignity and fundamental rights.
For the past 39 years, Humanity & Inclusion has been campaigning against anti-personnel mines and cluster bombs, with projects ranging from bomb clearance, risk education to teach civilians about the dangers of these weapons and victim assistance. The group's joint advocacy work led to the signing of the Ottawa Mine Ban Convention (1997) and the Oslo Convention on Cluster Munitions (2008). Humanity & Inclusion is one of six founding organizations of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and co-founder of the Cluster Munition Coalition.
Humanity & Inclusion is the new name of Handicap International.