Humanity & Inclusion has published a report on November 20, on the difficulties children with disabilities face in accessing education in the world’s poorest countries.
Valentina Pomatto, Inclusion Advocacy Officer for Humanity & Inclusion, explains the obstacles of inclusive education.
Are children with disabilities still excluded from the school system?
Thirty-two million children with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries are not enrolled in school. We can end this exclusion. Children with disabilities are still the most likely to be excluded from the education system: 50% of children with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries are still not enrolled in school. Only 42% of girls with disabilities complete their primary school education, compared to 51% of boys with disabilities (UNICEF). Children with sensory, physical or intellectual disabilities have a low school enrollment rate. They are two and a half times more likely not to attend school at all (UNESCO).
What is preventing children with disabilities from enrolling in school?
Many schools remain inaccessible – to people in a wheelchair, for example. Teaching aids like textbooks are often inadequate. Teachers are ill-prepared to teach children with a disability. They may not think to seat a visually impaired student in the front row and assume they have learning difficulties when they simply cannot read the board. All of these obstacles can and must be overcome.
But it’s not just about schools...
No, the problem is not just inside schools – and this is what our report is about. Many obstacles to education lie outside. We see countless examples every day.
A child with no transport or money to access rehabilitation care will not be healthy enough to attend school. A parent in a country without a welfare system who loses their job will ask their child to drop out of school and work to support the family. Family, friends, and local communities can hold strong prejudices and assume children with disabilities are unable to learn - so what is the point of sending them to school?
When children with disabilities do enroll in school, they are often segregated. More than 40% of countries in the regions of Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean still leaning towards segregated education systems (Global Education Monitoring Report, 2020). This is unacceptable and causes more stigma and discrimination.
Does Covid-19 make it more difficult to include children with disabilities?
Up to 90% of children and young people have had their education disrupted since the start of the pandemic in March 2020. Schools are still closed in 30 countries, accounting for some 33% of the student population (UNESCO). They include many children with disabilities who have stopped going to school.
Schools have found many ways to teach children remotely during the lockdown - online, for instance. But most children with disabilities come from extremely poor families who rarely have a computer at home. Some countries air lessons on YouTube or the radio, which are inaccessible to deaf or blind children.
Lastly, schools provide much more than an education: school is where a great many children eat their only meal of the day and access school-based care and child protection services. When countries go into lockdown and schools close, this service ends.
What is Humanity & Inclusion calling for?
International funding bodies should use development aid to invest in education. Funding for education has stagnated over the past decade, increasing the risk of growing inequality. We are calling for investment in free, inclusive education that does not reproduce a school system that segregates children.
We encourage the governments of low- and middle-income countries to coordinate education with health, welfare, child protection, transport, and other services. This means, for example, implementing a policy to help poor families, setting up a decentralized healthcare system (there are often medical centers in big cities but none in rural or remote areas), and providing affordable and safe transport to school.
Most of all, we are calling on them to listen to people with disabilities, their families, and their representative organizations because they are best placed to make practical proposals and improve access to school.
52 inclusive education projects
In 2020, Humanity & Inclusion has implemented 52 projects in 27 countries in West, Central, North and East Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Its work focuses in particular on children with disabilities—the most vulnerable and excluded young learners in the world—in low-income countries and in development and emergency contexts. Humanity & Inclusion aims to increase the school enrollment of children and young adults with disabilities.
PHOTO © Thomas Freteur/HI
Raphaël is nine years old, and lives in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He was born with one leg shorter than the other, and until he fractured his leg at age six, this did not cause him too many problems. As the family could not afford to pay for an operation, the leg was not treated properly. Humanity & Inclusion took care of Raphael in 2018, when his mother heard about the organization during a news session at one of the inclusive schools. Today, Raphaël moves around better and enjoys going to school where he feels included. In the picture, we see Raphaël in front of a chalk board doing math exercises.